At night, the night vision device uses the intensifier as the core device. It does not use the infrared illuminator to illuminate the target, and uses the reflected light of the target in the weak light to observe and aim the target by the image intensifier on the screen to be visible to the human eye.
Infrared night vision instrument is a military night vision instrument using photoelectric conversion technology. It is divided into two kinds of active and passive type: the former irradiates the target with infrared searchlight, receives the reflected infrared radiation to form the image; the latter does not launch infrared radiation, and forms "thermal image" depending on the infrared radiation of the target itself, so it is also called the "thermal image".
The visible light is very weak at night, but the infrared ray that the human eye can not see is very rich. The infrared viewer can help people observe, search, aim and drive the vehicle at night. Although infrared radiation has been discovered very early, it is limited by infrared components, and the development of infrared remote sensing technology is very slow. It was not until 1940 that Germany developed lead sulfide and several infrared transmittance materials that the infrared remote sensing instrument was born. After that, Germany first developed several kinds of infrared detectors, such as active infrared night vision instruments, but they could not be used in the Second World War.
Almost at the same time, the United States is also developing infrared night vision. Although the test is successful later than Germany, it has taken the lead in putting it into practical application. In the summer of 1945, the US troops landed on the island of Okinawa. The Japanese troops hiding in the Cave Tunnel took advantage of the complicated terrain and attacked the US troops at night. So the US army sent a number of the newly built infrared night meters to Okinawa and put the guns of the infrared night vision instrument near the cave. The day the army had just climbed out of the hole in the night and was immediately knocked down by an accurate gun. In the cave, the Japanese army continued to rush outside because of its unknown reasons. The infrared night vision instrument played an important role in clearing up the stubborn Japanese army on Okinawa island.
The active infrared night vision instrument has the characteristics of clear imaging and simple production, but its fatal weakness is that infrared light will be found by the infrared detector of the enemy according to the infrared light of the lamp. In 60s, the United States first developed a passive thermal imager, which does not launch infrared light, is not easily discovered by the enemy, and has the ability to observe through fog and rain.
From April 1982 to June, the war broke out between the United Kingdom and Argentina. In the middle of April 13th, the British attacked the port of Stanley, the largest military stronghold. 3000 minefields laid by British troops suddenly appeared before the army line. All guns and artillery in Britain are equipped with infrared night vision, which can clearly identify the target of the army in the dark. But the army is lack of night vision equipment, and can not find the British army, only passive passive. The British army took the opportunity to launch an assault on the British Army's accurate firepower. By dawn, the British army had occupied several main commanding points on the line of defense, and the army was under the control of the British forces. At 9 in the evening of June 14th, 14000 troops had to surrender to the British army. The British leading infrared night vision equipment has won a huge battle.
In the 1991 Gulf War, the army was equipped with advanced infrared night vision equipment in the wind, sand and smoke - filled battlefields. It was able to find each other before the Iraqi army tanks and fire. But the Iraqi army only learned from the muzzle fire from the US tank fire that the enemy was in front. From this we can see the important role of infrared night vision equipment in modern warfare.